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Teaching with Small Boats Alliance

Searsport District High School students build a Shellback dinghy at PMM

Searsport District High School students build a Shellback dinghy at PMM

The sea connects all things. As we observed Columbus Day this past week, I traveled down to Mystic Seaport to attend the Teaching with Small Boats Alliance conference. However we feel about this holiday, we can agree that the Europeans came to America by ship. Whether it was the Viking and Basque fishermen looking for a new fishing spot or European navies looking for mast trees, a ship on the ocean brought them to the North American continent, and the Gulf of Maine in particular. Having found the riches of the continent, a trans-Atlantic and eventually a global trade was born. The best way to transport goods to market is by the sea. A single vessel can carry more of a load than any land-based mode of transport. Searsport and Maine in general provided the bulk of the United States’ deepwater sailors and officers in the 19th and early 20th centuries and the majority of the last wooden merchant sailing Downeasters and multi-masted schooners were built in our state’s coastal communities. Young children in Maine grew up learning science, technology, engineering and mathematics as they built boats and navigated them across vast oceans. Today our children are learning those skills in the classroom isolated from their real world applications and many students are failing those subjects.

The Penobscot Marine Museum is reaching out to those students failing in the traditional classroom.  Studies of information retention put reading and verbal instruction as the least effective way of retaining information, yet that is how we teach in traditional classroom settings.  Museums with their exhibits and living history demonstrations where students can hear and see the information has a 50% retention rate.  The highest rate of retention is actually doing a task.  The Penobscot Marine Museum has partnered with the Searsport District High School and local boat-builder Greg Rössel in developing a hands-on science and math curriculum geared for optimum  retention.  The SDHS teachers have developed science and math curriculum tied to building the Shellback dinghy. A select group of SDHS students during the spring semester take a class at the Penobscot Marine Museum with Greg Rössel.  While few of the students will pursue a career in boatbuilding, they come away with an understanding of trigonometry, physics, algebra, geometry and their own skills.  Wanting to know more and connect with similar programs, the Museum sent me as a representative of this partnership to the Teaching with Small Boats Alliance conference.

Searsport District High School Students working on a Shellback dinghy at PMM

Searsport District High School Students working on a Shellback dinghy at PMM

The Teaching with Small Boats Alliance (TWSBA) is a network of maritime schools, boat-building shops, museums and community groups whose vision is to give young people an awareness of and resulting pride in their learning through the hands-on study of the maritime arts, its history and its   relationship to success in math and science.  TWSBA’s mission is to   improve the effectiveness of these organizations through a sharing of ‘best practices’ that promote the values of scholarship, craftsmanship, ingenuity,   self-discipline and a true sense of accomplishment.  The conference this   year focused on organizational development, program development and curriculum   development.  It is all too easy to feel isolated when pursuing   non-traditional models in schools and museums; it is such a relief to meet   with sister institutions from across the United States that have implemented   similar programs and who are willing to share their successes and   failures.  There is no need to reinvent the wheel when so many are   willing to share their resources.  There were sessions on the   nitty-gritty issues of insurance, fundraising, human relations, and   leadership which, while not that fun, are necessary to   fulfill our programmatic mission to inspire, educate and recreate.    Other sessions discussed how to get passionate adult volunteers to provide   necessary, but otherwise costly, assistance in the boat shop and providing   one-on-one tutorials in boat-building with the students.  Representatives   from the United States’ nineteen maritime primary and high schools provided   insights in how to “marinize” the Common Core standards, reflecting how the   sea connects all things and all subjects.  Our location on Penobscot   Bay provides students with an open-air classroom in history, biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, etc.

Passamaquoddy ocean-going canoe

Passamaquoddy ocean-going canoe at TWSBA conference

Of course all talk and no hands-on activities is an anathema to this   group.  I brought down the Passamaquoddy ocean-going canoe built by members of the Penobscot and Western Abenaki nations during the summer of 2006 on the Museum grounds.   Between 2005 and 2010, native apprentices learned the art of birchbark canoe-building on our campus and demonstrated the process to our visitors.  The canoe was a project of note in the Indigenous Programs presentation at the TWSBA conference. Attendees spent three afternoons admiring their   workmanship and taking it out for a paddle in the Mystic  River.    In addition to paddling our canoe, I took a row in the four-man St. Ayles Skiff and one-man Bevin’s Skiff built by other student organizations.

Native apprentices build a Passamaquoddy ocean-going canoe at PMM

Native apprentices build a Passamaquoddy ocean-going canoe at PMM

I returned from the conference inspired to do more hands-on learning projects.  If you are interested in this way of learning, please visit   the Teaching With Small Boats Alliance website at https://sites.google.com/site/twsballaince/   .  Once you too are inspired, contact the Museum about volunteering with our area students at 207-548-2529 or skettell@pmm-maine.org .

Rowing the St. Ayle's Skiff

Rowing the St. Ayle’s Skiff

For Those in Peril: The Waterspout vs. the TROVATORE

Without the aid of NOAA weather radio or hurricane and storm tracking software, sailors had to rely on their weather eye and sound judgment to head for shore or batten down the hatches for a storm.  Shown here is the watercolor of the TROVATORE which wrecked when a waterspout hit it in the Mediterranean.

Oliver Park, First Mate of the TROVATORE

Oliver Park, Second Mate of the TROVATORE

Oliver Park relates the story: “When I came on deck I found a severe squall a-coming…  When the squall passed, which it did almost instantly, there was not a breath of air stirring. When it stopped, it stopped all at once. Voices sounded like hollering in a barrel. We staid [sic] in that state for a few moments. Then … a downpour of wind and water struck us. The last I saw was yards flying in all directions. Then I was submerged in water, and knew that the vessel was blown over on her side. The water was coming over me in such torrents that I thought the vessel was upside down and I was under her. But I happened to be on the upper side, and having to catch my breath I found I got a little air, and I hung on. Almost instantly the downpour of water stopped, and it stopped all at once.

A waterspout is like a tornado that picks up houses, only on the ocean it sucks up water into a big balloon-shaped body of water on a neck. When that neck hits something the water in the balloon comes down.  At the moment when that deluge of water poured over me, it was pitch dark, so I couldn’t see a thing, but in all probability the neck of the waterspout hit the vessel, and the water in the balloon-shaped part came down on us. When that downpour of water stopped so suddenly, the darkness grew less, and I could dimly see the state we were in. The masts were in the water, and the broad side of the vessel was up. I managed to climb up on the broadside, which was badly stove in.

Captain James Blanchard, master of the bark TROVATORE

Captain James Blanchard, master of the bark TROVATORE

[Emma Blanchard (wife of Captain James Blanchard) was stuck below was hollering]… She wanted to know if she couldn’t come out. Captain told her yes. I threw a rope down to where she was. Captain slid down on the skylight. She reached out and he took her by the hand. But he could not save her, for at that very moment, as we could tell by the sound, she died with her hand clasped in his. Instantly the vessel pitched forward, going down. I started and ran, and jumped right off the keel.

Bark TROVATORE

Bark TROVATORE

In the Water

The next thing I knew, I was being tumbled and jumbled upside down, going down in the suction of the vessel. But being a good swimmer from childhood, I knew what to do when I was in the water…In my aimless swimming I finally chanced to face west where a glimmer of light sky showed the breaking of the storm; and between me and that light streak I saw a dark object bobbing up and down. I …found it to be one of the main deck hatches about three feet wide and six feet long. …I found it would partially bear me up by lying lengthwise on it, concave side up, with my hand paddling at the side, stomach down.

I floated around on that for an indefinite period of time until I accidently ran afoul of another exactly like it. I got that other hatch and I wiggled around, and worked around and got under that other hatch crosswise. When I had the two of them, I could sit up instead of lying down, with only my legs in the water, but I didn’t have any rope to fasten them together, so I had to hold one against the other.

In the meantime the clouds had all rolled away, and a bright moon had come out. In the morning, I kept up a hollering all the time….[eventually] I heard the sound of a fog horn. Then I knew someone had heard my voice and was answering with a fog horn…. When the boat came up to me I reached out and caught the gunwale of the boat. But at that point the reaction set in and I had no control of my muscles. The men reached out and hauled me into the boat. I was so benumbed and bewildered I couldn’t speak.

It proved to be an Italian vessel…, they took me to the ship, where the other sailors rigged up a boswain’s [sic] chair which they put me in and hauled me aboard the vessel….and put me in a bunk.

One of only three survivors of the waterspout disaster, Oliver Park shipped back to New York aboard an American brig. His mother had heard the report that the TROVATORE had been lost, and only one officer and two sailors saved. Captain Greene Park, a captain with whom Oliver had served in the past, had reassured her and the whole neighborhood that “if swimming had anything to do with it I was the officer saved, for I was like a duck in water.”

For Those in Peril: Shipwreck Affects Four Searsport Families

Captain’s sons who wanted to go to sea learned on ships commanded by their father’s friends and colleagues.  It was a sad day when a ship went down with young men aboard.  The story of the wreck of the ELIZABETH is one of  loss for four Searsport families. Her master, Captain John Herbert Colcord, was travelling with his wife and two children, who were saved, although he died. Also drowned were James Edwin Herriman, 17-year-old son of Captain James Herriman, and Nathan Philip Pendleton, son of Captain Nathan Pendleton. Earlier, James Locke Pendleton, son of Captain James Gilmore Pendleton, was killed falling from the ELIZABETH’s rigging.  The Colcords had a long history of trading in San Francisco Harbor, and when the ship went down, Captain Colcord’s loss was felt in his hometown of Searsport and that of San Francisco.  A set of resolutions of regret for the untimely death of the Captain, and expressing the high esteem in which he was held, was drawn up by the principal merchants of San Francisco, engrossed and framed, and after being exhibited in the old Merchants’ Exchange, was presented to his widow.

 

Memorial Citation for Captain Herbert Colcord of the ELIZABETH

Resolutions of Regret for Captain J. Herbert Colcord of the ELIZABETH

Chief officer W.C. Barclay gave the following account of the loss:

We arrived off San Francisco… Feb. 21, 1891.  Despite the offer of two tugs to tow the ship through the Golden Gate, Captain Colcord proceeded under sail until 2 pm, when she was nearly through the Golden Gate, and the wind shifted, heading her off.  The tug ALERT, which had followed the ship in, offered to tow us for $50, which offer Captain Colcord accepted …  As soon as the tug started ahead, the hawser parted and the ship commenced to drift in towards the shore…The tug came up again and wanted us to take his hawser on our quarter to tow the ship off stern first, as the Captain thought we were setting in shore.  As the ship was paying off all right, Captain Colcord ordered the tug to pass the hawser over the bow and go ahead, which was done and proceeded towards the city….The ship at this time was drifting steadily to leeward, there being a strong and increasing breeze and the tug being unable to make any headway.  At about 4pm the ship struck heavily on Four Fathom Bank or Potato Patch, the tug still towing and whistling for assistance.  Soon after striking, the hawser broke or was cut away.  Part of the ship’s keel floated alongside and the ship commenced to leak badly….The tug RELIANCE now came to us and the ALERT went away.  Captain Colcord ordered the second cutter launched to carry his wife and two children to the tug, but she swamped under …with three men in her, they being picked up by the tug.  The dingie was then launched with mate Barclay and two men…Captain Colcord persuaded his family to get in the boat.  They were taken on board the RELIANCE and the dingie again returned to the ship.  By this time the ACTIVE had passed her hawser to the ship, she having worked over the bank…Captain Colcord decided to get the ship into the harbor and beach her, if a suitable place could be found.  The RELIANCE made fast to the ACTIVE and towed ahead of her but the ship drifted steadily leeward all the time, the wind having increased to a heavy gale.  Captain Colcord ordered…the long boat turned over…Mr. Barclay went forward and seeing the ship was close in to the breakers, launched the boat at once, put three men in her and ordered the second mate and boatswain not to allow the boat to leave the ship until he returned with the master.  Mr. Barclay then went aft to get the Captain, who had been injured in the side…but…the ship’s stern struck and she swung around broadside to the beach, with heavy seas breaking over her, it being about 7 pm…Captain Colcord was told that the boat was ready and that it was time to leave the ship.  He at first demurred, saying he was too much hurt to help himself, but he was finally persuaded to make an attempt.  While Mr. Barclay and one of the crew were assisting him along the main deck, a heavy sea came on board and injured him so that he died.  Mr. Barclay then went forward and found that the boat with 13 men in her had left the ship and could not return, leaving 9 on board.  We secured ourselves as well as possible forward.  About 8 pm the masts commenced to come down and the ship to break up, driving us out on the bowsprit.  A heavy sea washed us overboard and only Mr. Barclay succeeded in reaching the shore alive.  Four of the men from the longboat also got ashore.  The tugs had disappeared in the darkness.”

Ship ELIZABETH

Ship ELIZABETH

Of the 29 persons on board, 18 were lost.

For Those in Peril: Rescuing Fellow Mariners

When a ship suffers disaster far away from the nearest Coast Guard Base, the Coast Guard puts out a call to other civilian and naval ships in the distressed vessels area to come to their aid.  This age old tradition of assisting your fellow mariners in need often goes unheeded.  The Ladies Seamen’s Friend Society ensured that recognition went to these civilian rescuers, as evidenced by this silver medal given to Albert A. Gould of Lincolnville for his assistance in the rescue of the schooner JANE’s crew.

Ladies Seaman's Friend Society Medal awarded to A. A. Gould of Lincolnville, Maine

Ladies Seaman’s Friend Society Medal awarded to A. A. Gould of Lincolnville, Maine

The schooner JANE of Bangor, ME dragged onto the rocks at the entrance to New Haven Harbor, Connecticut and sank at 2 am on February 28, 1884 during a furious gale. The thermometer only registered 6 degrees above zero.  News of the wreck reached New Haven at 8 am and numerous rescue attempts were enacted.  The tug WILLIAM narrowly escaped swamping in the heavy seas in  the first rescue attempt.  The captain of the WILLIAM joined the tug FREDERICK C. IVES crew.  Nearing the wreck, the tug’s yawl attempted to reach the schooner, but was too frail and small for such work.  The tug could not approach any closer without wrecking on the reef itself.  Heading back for the harbor, they borrowed the yawl of the schooner ROBERT MORGAN, as well as two of the MORGAN’s crew.  Four volunteers in the yawl were able to rescue the JANE’s captain and two of her crew by passing several times over the wreck between her masts, rather than tying off and risking swamping the yawl.  The JANE’s crew had lashed themselves into the rigging, and had to time their descent down the icy shrouds of the schooner and into the yawl.  The fourth crewmember, Elsen, was too benumbed with cold to descend the rigging and it was impossible for the volunteers to rescue him as they became frostbitten and the yawl iced up.  They promised to return speedily and took the three crewmembers ashore.  The tug returned to port and borrowed the yawl of the schooner EMMA F. ANGELL and eight volunteers, including Capt. Albert A. Gould of Lincolnville, who proceeded out into the gale, which still howled with unabated fury, and struggled for an hour to return to the wreck but, succumbing to frostbite, returned to shore to dry out and try again in the afternoon after the storm began to abate.  Darkness set in when they reached the wreck, but they found Elsen still alive.  In a lull in the wind, a volunteer sprang into the rigging and with much difficulty helped the Elsen down into the yawl.  They rowed as quickly as they could back to shore and Elsen was taken to the hospital in New Haven.  The howling of the tempest, the dangerous character of the sea and the intense cold were almost enough to deter the stoutest hearts from venturing out, and it was great wonder that no one died.

For Those in Peril: Confederates on the High Seas

War put civilian merchant ships at risk as the opposing side sought to disrupt commerce.  The Confederate raiders terrorized Yankee shipping on the high seas.  The JOSEPH PARK of Searsport  was burned by the Confederate privateer SUMTER.

Capture of the  Brig JOSEPH PARK by the privateer SUMTER. Sept. 25, 1861.  signed George E. Bates, Stockton

Capture of the Brig JOSEPH PARK by the privateer SUMTER. Sept. 25, 1861. signed George E. Bates, Stockton

A sister ship from Searsport, the DELPHINE with Captain William Greene Nichols and his wife Lillias aboard, was taken by the SHENANDOAH off Java Head on December 29, 1864.  Lillias fought the Confederate’s fire with a tongue-lashing of her own.  A newspaper article commemorating Lillias’ 90th birthday tells the tale:

Java Head and the Straits of Sunda

Java Head and the Straits of Sunda

The SHENANDOAH lulled her victims into a false sense of security by flying the English flag.  Seeing another ship on the broad ocean provided crews and captains with a chance for a social call, and as Captain Nichols saw SHENANDOAH approach, he drew closer for a chat.  Once in range though, the SHENANDOAH fired a blank shot and then began clearing away her two forward guns, which caused Captain Nichols to hove to.  Lieut. Waddell of the SHENANDOAH informed Nichols that the vessel would be sunk, to which Nichols informed him that his wife was aboard and she was a delicate and nervous woman who would not survive the transfer to the Confederate ship.  Waddell seriously considered allowing the DELPHINE go, but had the ship’s surgeon check on Mrs. Nichols, who turned out to be a robust woman with strong nerves and an acid tongue.

Lillias Pendleton Nichols

Lillias Pendleton Nichols

The transfer of Lillias, her son Phineas aged six, and the steward’s wife was effected by a bosun’s chair from the SHENANDOAH.  Lillias insisted on bringing her canary bird in its cage and with perfect self-possession ordered the sailors of SHENANDOAH when to raise and lower the chair.  Once aboard the Confederate vessel, she inquired of Lieut. Waddell what he intended to do with them and where they would be landed.  When Waddell informed her they would be landed on the island of St. Paul, an inhospitable volcanic rock in the South Indian Ocean, she replied; “Never, I would rather stay with you.”

Captain William Greene Nichols

Captain William Greene Nichols

The SHENANDOAH set fire to the DELPHINE, and she drifted out of sight with her sails ablaze, a mass of flame and smoke.  Capt. Nichols took the loss hard, and as he was pacing a Lieut. Chew of the SHENANDOAH tried to comfort him saying “Captain, just think that if at daylight this morning you had changed your course a quarter of a point, you would have passed out of our reach and sight.”  To which Nichols replied: “That shows how darn little you know about it.  This morning at daylight I just did change my course a quarter of a point and that’s what fetched me here.”

The SHENANDOAH took the prisoners to Hobson’s Bay in Australia near Melbourne.  The books Lillias had brought onboard were returned to her, except for Uncle Tom’s Cabin which was tossed overboard and Capt. Nichols ship’s chronometer was kept.    Lillias’ reaction was “If those chronometers and sextants were mine, I guess I’d make them give them to me.”  Her last words to the SHENANDOAH crew were “I wish that steamer may be burned.”

CLARISSA B. CARVER v. GLENMORGANSHIRE

As shipping traffic increased in the 1800s, the number of collisions between ships rose.  The reason?  “The other guy wasn’t paying attention and hit me” or “I had the right of way!”  The rules of the road (sailing vessels with less maneuverability have right of way over small powered vessels, large tankers which have a slow response time in stopping or turning, have right of way over everyone) lessen the collisions, but only if there are no dare devils and if everyone is paying attention.

CLARISSA B. CARVER

CLARISSA B. CARVER

On the night of June 7, 1885, the ship CLARISSA B. CARVER of Searsport sailed into Hiogo Bay headed for the port of Kobe, Japan.  Bearing down on her was the British steamer GLENMORGANSHIRE.  Captain Leroy Dow of the CARVER ascertained that he had the right-of-way and his own vessel’s running lights were burning brightly, and ordered his helmsmen to hold his course.  The GLENMORGANSHIRE stayed on the collision course until she was three lengths from the CARVER, then turned her helm hard-a-port to cross the CARVER’s bow, instead the collision sank the CARVER in 40 minutes and so severely damaged the steamer that she had to be beached.  Luckily the wind was light and the sea smooth, and the crew of the CARVER was able to abandon ship, save the flag, and row ashore.

Leroy Dow and friends in Yokohama

Leroy Dow and friends in Yokohama

Dow immediately secured the services of British lawyer Lowder to institute proceedings against the steamer to recover damages.  While he waited for the case to go to trial, Dow secured a job clerking for American ships discharging and loading cargo in Kobe.  Dow was given an advance on the $1500 court fees by Dr. Charles Goddard Weld of Boston (one of the original rusticators on North Haven), who only asked that Dow send him the amount, with no interest, if Dow won the case.  In all the case took a year and four months to try in British Admiralty Court.  The owners of the CARVER sued for $100,000 in damages and the GLAMORGANSHIRE counter sued for $61,500.

CLARISSA B. CARVER Wreck Testimory

CLARISSA B. CARVER Wreck Testimory

CLARISSA B. CARVER Wreck Survey

CLARISSA B. CARVER Wreck Survey

The masters of both vessels, crew members, divers and nautical assessors were called in to testify.  The case hinged on whether the steamer had seen the green starboard running light of the CARVER and had taken proper precautions to avoid her, as she had right-of-way.  Testimony showed the light was burning brightly, but not observed by the steamer’s lookout, who one judge noted, was “not a sharp hand.”  The judges ruled in favor of the CARVER, awarding $100,000 in damages.

DSC_0134

For Those in Peril: Fire and Wooden Ships

As one can imagine, wooden ships and fire do not make for a good day at sea. Cargoes of case oil, charcoal, guano, and lime were prone to catching fire, spontaneously combusting or smoldering. Numerous vessels met their demise carrying these cargos.

Ship RAPPAHANNOCK of Bath

Ship RAPPAHANNOCK of Bath

Captain Wiley Rogers Dickinson, master of the ship RAPPAHANNOCK

Captain Wiley Rogers Dickinson, master of the ship RAPPAHANNOCK

The ship RAPPAHANNOCK of Bath, under the command of Captain Wiley Rogers Dickinson, carrying a cargo of soft charcoal spontaneously combusted while traveling from Liverpool to San Francisco around Cape Horn on November 2, 1891. The ship was just two years old. Capt. Dickinson had his wife and two daughters Grace and Bessie on board the vessel.

Watercolor of the wreck of the ship RAPPAHANNOCK

Watercolor of the wreck of the ship RAPPAHANNOCK

Cumberland Bay on Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Ferdinand Islands, Chile

Cumberland Bay on Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Ferdinand Islands, Chile

The vessel made it to Cumberland Bay, on the northern end of the South Pacific Island of Juan Fernandez about 400 miles off the Chilean mainland, where she was completely destroyed. The crew of three mates, 26 men, the Captain and his wife and two daughters took refuge on Robinson Crusoe Island, and were eventually rescued by the Chilean Government steamer HUEMIAL, which took them to Valparaiso, Chile.

Chilean Flag

Chilean Flag given to Bessie Dickinson

Bessie Dickinson was given a Chilian Flag by Manuel Carera, on November 25, 1891, the morning she and the others of the left the island. As they were about to get into the boats, Manuel came running to the water’s edge where Bessie was standing. “Missy’, he said, ‘so many people ask Manuel for this flag’, clasping it to his breast,” so many offer Manuel money, but I do not give it to any of them.’ He pushed the flag into Bessie’s hands ‘I give it to the little Missy, so that someday when she is far away she will look at this flag and think of Manuel way down in these South Pacific Oceans. Maybe you will come back, maybe we will never see you, but you think of Manuel’. He brushed the tears from his eyes, as Bessie caught his two hands, her own eyes bright with tears at the unexpected gift, ‘Some day Manuel I hope we see you again, you’ve been so good to us. I don’t know what we would have done without you to help. I’ll always keep your flag.’ She ran down to the boat while Manuel stood there, a typical Robinson Crusoe, rugged as the hills that rose high in air back of him.”